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#1 fishinghat

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Posted 27 July 2015 - 09:58 AM

This is an overview from Wiki. More details to follow.

Wiki

Introduction

"Commonly claimed benefits of probiotics include the decrease of potentially pathogenic gastrointestinal microorganisms, the reduction of gastrointestinal discomfort, the strengthening of the immune system, the improvement of the skin's function, the improvement of bowel regularity, the strengthening of the resistance to cedar pollen allergens, the decrease in body pathogens, the reduction of flatulence and bloating, the protection of DNA, the protection of proteins and lipids from oxidative stress damage, and the maintaining of individual intestinal microbiota in subjects receiving antibiotic treatment."

"Research

Probiotics are under considerable research, as the concept holds promise for human health and well-being, and corresponding commercial opportunities. Protection of consumers requires health claims to be confirmed with sufficient scientific evidence. Overall scientific demonstration of probiotic effects requires defining a healthy microbiota and interactions between microbiota and host, and the difficulty to characterize probiotic effectiveness in health and disease. Recent developments of high-throughput sequencing technology and the consequent progresses of metagenomics represent a new approach for the future of probiotics research.

Studies are examining whether probiotics affect mechanisms of intestinal inflammation, diarrhea,or urogenital infections. Through 2012, however, in all cases proposed as health claims to the European Food Safety Authority, the scientific evidence remains insufficient to prove a cause and effect relationship between consumption of probiotic products and any health benefit.

Research into the potential health effects of supplemental probiotics has included the molecular biology and genomics of Lactobaccillus in immune function, cancer, and antibiotic-associated diarrhea, travellers' diarrhea, pediatric diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease, and irritable bowel syndrome. Testing of a probiotic applies to a specific strain under study. The scientific community cautions against extrapolating an effect from a tested strain to an untested strain.

Although research does suggests that the relationship between gut flora and humans is a mutualistic relationship, very little evidence supports claims that probiotic dietary supplements have any health benefits. Improved health through gut flora modulation appears to be directly related to long-term dietary changes.

In a 2009 blog post, one expert reasoned that preliminary clinical results exist for some applications, such as treating diarrhea, but wider health benefits claimed by probiotic proponents lack plausibility since the body's "ecosystem" is sufficiently complex that adding a few bacteria is unlikely to have the claimed effect. Accordingly, he reasoned, "the alleged health benefits of probiotics are often an example of spin". Since then, there has been an increase in the body of scientific evidence supporting the use of specific probiotics to improve health. Although the body's complex microbial community is incompletely understood at present, there is strong scientific consensus on the benefits of using of probiotics to address certain medical states or conditions.

Claims that some lactobacilli may contribute to weight gain in some humans remain controversial.

Allergies

Probiotics are ineffective in preventing allergies in children, with the possible exception of eczema.

Diarrhea

Some probiotics are suggested as a possible treatment for various forms of gastroenteritis, and a Cochrane Collaboration meta-analysis on the use of probiotics to treat acute infectious diarrhea based on a comprehensive review of medical literature through 2010 reported that use of any of the various tested probiotic formulations appeared to reduce the duration of diarrhea by a mean of 25 hours, also noting, however, that "the differences between the studies may be related to other unmeasured and unexplored environmental and host factors" and that further research was needed to confirm reported benefits.

Antibiotic-associated diarrhea

Some of the best evidence in support of probiotic health benefits is in the treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). Antibiotics are a common treatment for children, and 20% of antibiotic-treated children develop diarrhea. AAD results from an imbalance in the colonic microbiota caused by antibiotic therapy. Microbiota alteration changes in carbohydrate metabolism, with decreased short-chain fatty acid absorption and osmotic diarrhea as a result. The preventive role of some probiotics has been correctly assessed in randomized, controlled clinical trials. A review assessing the work of 16 different studies representing the evaluation of more than 3,400 patients concluded that the evidence gathered suggested a protective effect of some probiotics in this condition. In adults, some probiotics showed a beneficial role in reducing the occurrence of AAD. Another consequence of antibiotic therapy leading to diarrhea is the overgrowth of potentially pathogenic organisms such as Clostridium difficulties.

Probiotic treatment might reduce the incidence and severity of AAD as indicated in several meta-analyses, For example, treatment with probiotic formulations including L. rhamnosus may reduce the risk of AAD, improve stool consistency during antibiotic therapy, and enhance the immune response after vaccination. However, further documentation of these findings through trials is required to confirm specific effects and obtain regulatory approval, which currently does not exist.

The potential efficacy of probiotic AAD prevention is dependent on the probiotic strain(s) used and on the dosage. A Cochrane Collaboration systematic review, in which 16 randomized clinical trials were analyzed, concluded that treatments with less than 5000 million CFUs/day did not show a significant decrease of AAD. However, patients treated with ≥5000 million CFUs/day (including L. rhamnosus and Saccharomyces boulardii) had 60% lower relative risk (95%CI: 44–71%) of experiencing AAD than untreated patients.

Lactose intolerance

Ingestion of certain active strains may help lactose-intolerant individuals tolerate more lactose than they would otherwise have tolerated.

Cholesterol

Preliminary human and animal studies have demonstrated the efficacy of some strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for reducing serum cholesterol levels, presumably by breaking down bile in the gut, thus inhibiting its reabsorption (where it enters the blood as cholesterol).

A meta-analysis that included five double-blind trials examining the short-term (2–8 weeks) effects of a yogurt with probiotic strains on serum cholesterol levels found a minor change of 8.5 mg/dL (0.22 mmol/L) (4% decrease) in total cholesterol concentration, and a decrease of 7.7 mg/dL (0.2 mmol/L) (5% decrease) in serum LDL concentration.

A slightly longer study evaluating the effect of a yogurt with probiotic strains on 29 subjects over six months found no statistically significant differences in total serum cholesterol or LDL values. However, the study did note a significant increase in serum HDL from, 50 to 62 mg/dL (1.28 to 1.6 mmol/L) following treatment. This corresponds to a possible improvement of LDL/HDL ratio.

Studies specifically on hyperlipidemic subjects are still needed.

Blood pressure

The consumption of probiotics may effect a modest benefit in helping to control high blood pressure.

Immune function and infections

Some strains of LAB may affect pathogens by means of competative inhibition (i.e., by competing for growth) and some evidence suggests they may improve immune function by increasing the number of IgA-producing plasma cells and increasing or improving phagocytosis, as well as increasing the proportion of T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Clinical trials have demonstrated that probiotics may decrease the incidence of respiratory-tract infections and dental caries in children. LAB products might aid in the treatment of acute diarrhea, and possibly affect rotavirus infections in children and travelers' diarrhea in adults, but no products are approved for such indications.

Helicobacter pylori

Some strains of LAB may affect Helicobacter pylori infections (which may cause peptic ulcers) in adults when used in combination with standard medical treatments, but no standard in medical practice or regulatory approval exists for such treatment.

Inflammation

Some strains of LAB may modulate inflammatory and hypersensitivity responses, an observation thought to be at least in part due to the regulation of cytokine function. Clinical studies suggest they can prevent reoccurrences of inflammatory bowel disease in adults, as well as improve milk allergies. How probiotics may influence the immune system remains unclear, but a potential mechanism under research concerns the response of T lymphocyts to proinflammatory stimuli.

Irritable bowel syndrome and colitis

Probiotics may help people with irritable bowel syndrome, although uncertainty remains around which type of probiotic works best, and around the size of the effect.
No good evidence indicates taking probiotics helps maintain remission from ulcerative colitis.

Necrotizing enterocolitis

Several clinical studies provide evidence for the potential of probiotics to lower the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and mortality in premature infants. One meta-analysis indicated that probiotics reduce all-cause mortality and risk of having NEC by more than 50% compared with controls.

Vitamin production

Probiotic treatment has been studied as a means of addressing maladies associated with vitamin deficiency, e.g., of Vit K, folic acid, and Vit B 12.

Eczema

Probiotics are commonly given to breast-feeding mothers and their young children to prevent eczema, but some doubt exists over the strength of evidence supporting this practice.

Bacterial Vaginosis

Probiotic treatment of bacterial vaginosis is the application or ingestion of bacterial species found in the healthy vagina to cure the infection of bacteria causing bacterial vaginosis. This treatment is based on the observation that 70% of healthy females have a group of bacteria in the genus Lactobacillus that dominate the population of organisms in the vagina. Currently, the success of such treatment has been mixed since the use of probiotics to restore healthy populations of Lactobacillus has not been standardized. Often, standard antibiotic treatment is used at the same time that probiotics are being tested. In addition, some groups of women respond to treatment based upon ethnicity, age, number of sexual partners, pregnancy, and the pathogens causing bacterial vaginosis. In 2013, researchers found that administration of hydrogen peroxide producing strains, such as L. acidophilus and L. rhamnosus, were able to normalize vaginal pH and rebalance vaginal flora, preventing and alleviating bacterial vaginosis.

Side effects

In some situations, such as where the person consuming probiotics is critically ill, probiotics could be harmful. In a therapeutic clinical trial conducted by the Dutch Pancreatitis Study Group, the consumption of a mixture of six probiotic bacteria increased the death rate of patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis.

In a clinical trial aimed at showing the effectiveness of probiotics in reducing childhood allergies, researchers gave 178 children either a probiotic or a placebo for the first six months of their lives. Those given the probiotic were more likely to develop a sensitivity to allergens.

Some hospitals have reported treating Lactobacillus septicemia, which is a potentially fatal disease caused by the consumption of probiotics by people with lowered immune systems or who are already very ill.

Probiotics taken orally can be destroyed by the acidic conditions of the stomach. A number of microencapsulation techniques are being developed to address this problem.

One 2009 paper cited a 2007 study in chickens as a support for causally linked probiotic products such as yogurts with obesity trends. However, this is contested as the link to obesity, and other health-related issues with yogurt may link to its dairy and calorie attributes.

Some experts are skeptical on the efficacy of many strains and believe not all subjects will benefit from the use of probiotics.


#2 lady2882Nancy

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Posted 27 July 2015 - 08:24 PM

Lots to think about and definitely more study needed on this subject.

Thanks fishinghat


#3 hyg

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Posted 29 July 2015 - 02:39 PM

Fishinghat, Wow, I had no idea about some of these benefits related to probiotics. Thank you for sharing this. As a dental professional, I really want to learn more( only for myself and my family). It sounds like there is the possibility to help the biofilm in my mouth to be more healthy. Do you or anyone else have any knowledge of ProBiora3? I am finding little to none in my dental research. Again, I only want to use the knowledge personally and would appreciate any and all feedback. Thank you!!!

#4 fishinghat

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Posted 29 July 2015 - 06:48 PM

I will be adding a lot more info on the probiotics later.
 
You asked for it.....

http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/19486429

J Appl Microbiol. 2009 Aug;107(2):682-90. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2009.04243.x. Epub 2009 Mar 30.
Preliminary assessment of safety and effectiveness in humans of ProBiora3, a probiotic mouthwash.
Zahradnik RT1, Magnusson I, Walker C, McDonell E, Hillman CH, Hillman JD.
Author information
⦁ Abstract
AIMS:
To conduct a pilot human clinical trial to assess the safety and to test the ability of a probiotic mouthwash, ProBiora(3), to affect the levels of Streptococcus mutans and certain known periodontal pathogens in the mouth when administered twice daily over a period of 4 weeks.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
The mouthwash contained three specific strains of naturally occurring oral bacteria and was tested at two dose levels: 10(6) and 10(8) colony forming units each of Strep. oralis strain KJ3sm, Strep. uberis strain KJ2sm, and the spontaneous lactic acid-deficient variant of Strep. rattus, strain JH145. Substantial decreases in the levels of the marker bacteria were observed. No safety issues were noted with the twice daily application of this mouthwash.
CONCLUSIONS:
Despite the small number of subjects and the use of young, orally healthy adults, along with the inherent variability in the microbiological measurements, the probiotic mouthwash was able to substantially affect the levels of dental pathogens in saliva and periodontal pathogens in subgingival plaque.
SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY:
The results of this pilot human study suggest that the probiotic mouthwash product may be safe for daily use as an aid in maintaining both dental and periodontal health.


http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/19815843

Int J Toxicol. 2009 Sep-Oct;28(5):357-67. doi: 10.1177/1091581809340705.
Safety assessment of ProBiora3, a probiotic mouthwash: subchronic toxicity study in rats.
Hillman JD1, McDonell E, Hillman CH, Zahradnik RT, Soni MG.
Author information
⦁ Abstract
Streptococcus viridans are commensal bacteria that constitute a significant portion of the resident oral microflora. The objective of the present study is to investigate adverse effects, if any, of a blend of 3 natural strains, Streptococcus uberis KJ2, Streptococcus oralis KJ3, and Streptococcus rattus JH145 (probiotic mouthwash, ProBiora(3)). The blend is administered to rats orally once daily (5 days per week) at doses of 0, 10(6), or 10(9) colony-forming units of each strain for 14 weeks. No treatment-related adverse effects are observed in the physiological parameters during the study or in the evaluation of blood and tissue samples taken from the animals at the end. Results of an in vitro antibiotic susceptibility study demonstrate that all 3 ProBiora(3) strains are susceptible to commonly used therapeutic antibiotics. The results of these investigations reveal that the no-observed-adverse-effect level of the probiotic mouthwash is 2.16 x 10(9) colony-forming units per strain per kilogram of body weight per day, the highest dose used.

#5 hyg

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Posted 29 July 2015 - 09:06 PM

Thank you FishingHat( research genius) and thank you for the personal messenger messages also( you know who you are). It was suggested I also review Oragenics. I am assuming some probiotics have specific targets? I will read all the articles that everyone suggested. I appreciate all the help and advice. Hyg

#6 fishinghat

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Posted 30 July 2015 - 08:34 AM

If my memory is right the ProBiora3 is made by Oragenics. I was also wondering if these researchers had a link to the product and were a little bias. I notice there is overlap in the drs involved.

#7 fishinghat

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Posted 30 July 2015 - 08:46 AM

Well this is interesting.

At least some of the drs involved in this research are from the Univ. of Florida School of Dentistry. They are located just a few miles from the Oragenics many office. Some coincidence. In addition on the Oragenics page for their Evora products they offer kickbacks to any dentist who uses or recommends their products. I just love free enterprise.

#8 hyg

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Posted 30 July 2015 - 09:05 AM

Fishinghat, I realized that too while reading last night. One thing that I found odd is that I have been a dental hygienist for 17 years, have worked in various offices, and take tons of continuing education courses. Not once have I heard of this product being used. Regardless of its promises, I can only assume part of the reason is that it's not based on sound, scientific fact. Too much is still unknown. I am going to try it out though(on myself) and will let you know how it goes Hyg

#9 Carleeta

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Posted 19 August 2015 - 11:26 PM

My favorite subject. Probiotics! Still having my Activia Greek. Of course once in a while I just have the Greek yogurt plain with my oatmeal breakfast concoction in a Mason jar I make at night and it's ready in the am. Probiotics are still very very very good for our bodies (in my book anyway).

#10 FiveNotions

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Posted 21 August 2015 - 09:22 PM

Definitely good info, thanks FH !

 

Carleeta, you got me started on the Activia a year or more ago ... great stuff ... and now I'm thinking I need to look into actual supplements ... FH, Hyg, or Carleeta, do you have any suggestions?


#11 fishinghat

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Posted 22 August 2015 - 07:22 AM

Ultimate Flora brand. Best mixture of various gut flora. Has ben shown to out preform other products on the market. The standard dose is 30 billion colonies per day. There is suppose to be another brand on the market that is suppose to be as good but I can't remember the name right now. For you guys, check the packaging closely. Ultimate flora also sells a probiotic brand for prophylactic treatment of vaginal bacterial and  yeast infections. Said to be very effective to reduce the number of occurances in women. It produces too much acidity for med's gut though and will upset your digestive tract. Just another difference between men and women. lol


#12 Carleeta

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Posted 22 August 2015 - 08:55 PM

FN, I still use Activia. The supplements I have not tried yet, only due to the fact the Activia works well for me.  One of my nieces uses a probiotic supplement and she seems happy with it. I will ask her when she gets back from Florida in a few day what the name of her supplement is. Ill get back to you on this..  Although, you might have to remind me....lol lol


#13 FiveNotions

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Posted 23 August 2015 - 12:16 PM

Thanks FH, I'll look into that supplement ... and Carleeta, don't forget and give me the recipe for "lumpia" instead of the name of your niece's supplement   :P


#14 Carleeta

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Posted 23 August 2015 - 06:00 PM

FiveNotions, I will give you the recipe for our Lumpua. What you first need to get is the spring roll wrapers. Not the rice ones, the ones made with flour. Once you pick those up (I recommend 2 packages) you put them in the freezer. Once they are in the freezer I'll give you the rest of the recipe.

#15 FiveNotions

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Posted 23 August 2015 - 08:06 PM

giggle ... tee hee ... snort ... Carleeta, I can't cook ... scrambled eggs is the most complicated thing I know how to do ... and even that's not a guaranteed edible outcome ... so don't give me that recipe ... I was teasing you ... ;) ... no recipes for me, just the name of the probiotic supplement that your niece takes ... (but if that's the niece that left you to run her business while she was away, no need to ask her .... sorting out what happened with her CNA schedules is what's important) ... :)


#16 Carleeta

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Posted 24 August 2015 - 09:43 PM

FiveNotions, he he he he . I did not know you didn't know how to cook.   lol lol lol. Once again you are psychic, and I love it.  Yes, that is the niece with the business.lol lol.  She pulled in today at 6pm. They were stuck on I95 for hours, there was a terrible accident mile and miles ahead of them so I didn't see her today. I talked to her on car text most of the day as I was out and about.  She will be here in person tomorrow.  She has been apologizing and searching deep inside her soul. That is what I wanted her to do, realize what fear, anxiety, and distrust she caused clients and CNA's. She will face me tomorrow.. lol lol

 

you are toooo psychic


#17 brzghoff

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Posted 25 August 2015 - 03:53 PM

anybody try kombucha tea? i love it. its pricey, but is naturally carbonated, just sweet enough but has very low sugar. full of probiotics. however some people are freaked out by how it's made: regular tea, and a special kind of "symbiotic 'colony' of bacteria and yeast" called SCOBY. its a naturally fermented beverage - but not alcoholic. its often infused with natural fruit flavors. you can make it yourself. the SCOBY is available in natural food stores or on the web. it looks kinda gross - i'll admit. bt one you are done making the tea, you scoop it out and store it. its kept like a "starter culture" is kept for yogurt and sourdough bread. i haven't tried making it yet but i want to. it costs about $3 for a 16 oz bottle. it has about 4 grams of sugar per 8 oz serving. when making it you use a lot of sugar - to feed the yeast - but the remaining amount in the finished tea is very low. 


#18 Carleeta

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Posted 26 August 2015 - 09:23 AM

Ultimate Flora (Adult formula) 15 Billion live cultures per capsules. 10 Probiotic strains delayed release capsules.  It's Dairy and gluten free. The Company of RENEW LIFE.


#19 FiveNotions

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Posted 26 August 2015 - 01:45 PM

well, since both Dr. FH and Dr. Carleeta recommend the "Ultimate Flora" brand, that's what I'll get ! :D





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