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I'm Not As Good As I Thought I Was.


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#1 silverseed72

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Posted 17 October 2016 - 10:05 AM

I weaned off of cymbalta back at the first of the year because my MD said my liver functions were way high. I have since reduced my lisinopril due to things I have read about it. On a good note, my BP has been pretty good. Within the last month, the highest it's been is 128 over 84, and as low as 116 over 68.

 

In the past month, my depression and anxiety have skyrocketed! Are there any meds that aren't as bad for your liver? I know they all are bad, but I can't take this anymore. Or any natural solutions?

 

 


#2 fishinghat

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Posted 17 October 2016 - 11:53 AM

Clonidine and hydroxyzine are well tolerated by the liver. Neither have withdrawal and both can lower bp.

As far as others are concerned...

.... Read Original Article: http://www.herbslist.net/skullcap.html
 

Alternate Treatments for Anxiety
Cautions and Warnings – Stress starts a series of actions that include the release of adrenaline and other neural stimulants. This causes an increase in respiration, pulse, and blood pressure as well as general metabolism. Any medicine which will help alleviate anxiety will have the effect of lowering the pulse, blood pressure and respiration. This decrease helps explain the frequent weight gains when taking anxiety medicine. The taking of more than one anxiety medicine at a time or too much of an anxiety medicine can pose a risk of low blood pressure and pulse. Not only is it essential that these medications be discussed with your physician but they should still be approached with care. When prescribed an anxiety medicine you should consider starting with a partial dose and gradually working your dose upward as you feel comfortable with any side effects. Nearly all medicines can have serious side effects. The risk of a serious side effect may be very low BUT you never know, you could be the one. By starting with a low dose it will give you a chance to determine what side effects or allergic reaction will occur before a larger dose is attempted. If you do develop a symptom and wonder if it is a reported side effect of a certain medicine you can find out at http://www.ehealthme.com/HYPERLINK "http://www.ehealthme.com/" by using their search engine. Place the name of the medicine first followed by a comma and then the side effect (eg. headache). It will tell you the number of people reporting side effects for that drug and the % that actually reported your particular symptom. This data includes the FDA and literature going back to 1977.
This information in this document is NOT to be considered a recommendation of any of the drugs. It is only meant as a starting point in the patient's effort to be informed on anxiety medications other than ssri/snri, benzos and other addictive anxiety medications. Any thought of using any of these drugs should not only be discussed with your doctor but should be closely reviewed for side effects and drug interactions. Drugs.com is a good beginning source for drug interactions. Use their 'interaction checker'.
http://www.drugs.com...teractions.html
Please exercise caution when starting any new medication.
Cimetidine – (Tagamet) Increases the absorption of a great many medicines. Please check your meds to see if they can be taken with Tagamet.
Liver and kidney damage is frequent with use of most of these medicines and patients should insist upon a liver function blood test (LFT) and to have their kidney functions checked at least annually. The liver is a detoxification organ for our body and processes most of the medicines we take.
Glossary:
antagonist – blocks a neuroreceptor
anxiolytic - A drug that relieves anxiety.
anticholenergic - an anti-cholinergic agent that functions by competing with the neurotransmitter acetylcholine for its receptor. Anticholinergics are used to treat spastic disorders of the GI tract, to reduce salivary and bronchial secretions before surgery, or to dilate the pupil.
agonist - a drug that stimulates activity at receptors normally stimulated by naturally occurring substances. The opposite of an antagonist.

Possible Anxiety Treatments

Antihistamines
Antihistamines are drugs that block the action of histamine (a compound released in allergic inflammatory reactions) at the histamine (H) receptor sites, responsible for immediate hypersensitivity reactions such as sneezing and itching. Histamine-releasing neurons are located in the tuberomammillary nucleus of the hypothalamus, and with ventral areas (hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and amygdala) receiving a particularly strong innervation. The histamine system is involved in many central nervous system functions: arousal; anxiety; activation of the sympathetic nervous system; the stress-related release of hormones from the pituitary and of central aminergic neurotransmitters; water retention and suppression of eating.
There are four known histamine receptors: H 1-4. The H1 receptor can be found in the tuberomammillary nucleus of the hypothalamus and the cortex of the HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia....i/Hypothalamus"HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypothalamus"brain. It is also common in many other tissues of the body. The H2 receptor is found throughout the Hypothalamus, central nervous system including neurons (nerve cells). It stimulates formation of cAMP (a compound used to transport energy), protein formation, muscle contraction, blood pressure and much more. The H3 receptor is found in neurons and when stimulated it acts to inhibit other neurotransmitter formation including Dopamine, GABA, acetylcholine, noradrenaline, histamine and serotonin. The H4 receptor is expressed in the colon, liver, lung, small intestine, spleen, testes, thymus, tonsils, and trachea.

Increasing evidence supports a role for histamine in anxiety and depression. In most studies the anxiety is caused by stimulation of the histamine H1 receptor (H1R) or blockade of the histamine H2 receptor (H2R). These effects of histamine on anxiety and depression make histamine receptor ligands attractive therapeutic targets for anxiety and depression.

Diphenhydramine, (over the counter) also known as Benadryl, is an antihistamine and as such is not only used for allergies/colds but also as a sleep aide. It does have a mild anxiolytic effect. May lower blood pressure and cause irregular heartbeats. Long-term use of Benadryl often affects mental cognition, especially in the elderly. Your body does build up tolerance to it after a few weeks. There is evidence of dependence in cases of long-term heavy uses, It is a histamine H(1)R antagonist in the brain. Do not take this medicine with any other medicine that can cause sleepiness including benzos, most blood pressure medicines, ssri/snri, buspar and others. Please check for compatibility before using. This medicine has many drug interactions.
Begins working in 15 to 30 minutes
Peak levels - 2 to 2.5 hrs
Half Life – 4 to 6 hrs
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/24530460
Moderately effective
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/19415242
(50mg dose)
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/16156843
Effective
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/16111835
Effective
http://jdc.jefferson...gi?article=1012HYPERLINK "http://jdc.jefferson.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1012
http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/18308811
Can cause dependence with constant heavy use. Some moderate withdrawal symptoms possible.

Chlorpheniramine (over the counter) is an antihistamine {H(1)R antagonist} used to treat allergy symptoms. It does cause sleepiness like other antihistamines and has significant anxiolytic effects. It has also been shown to function as an ssri and snri. As such it should never be taken in combination with those medications as it can cause seratonin syndrome. Due to its anticholenergic effects it frequently causes constipation. As with diphenhydramine do not take with other medicines that can cause sleepiness. Recommended dose is 4 mg every 4 to 6 hrs not to exceed 32 mg/day. Widely sold as an allergy treatment.
Begins working in 30 minutes to an hour
Peak levels - 2 to 4 hrs
Half Life – 12 to 43 hrs
https://www.ncbi.nlm...les/PMC3854398/
(8mg dose)
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/16876927
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/16156843
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/12951198
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/10541737

Hydroxyzine, (Vistaril, Atarax) is an H(1)R antagonist, is very effective against anxiety in most people but some get no help from it at all. It is not addictive nor does it have withdrawal but it also can lower blood pressure some but that usually goes away with time. This medicine should be started slowly to give your body a chance to adjust to the blood pressure effect. Normal dose is 25 mg four times a day but can go as high as 400mg/day.
Begins working in 30 minutes or less
Peak levels - 2 hrs
Half Life – 15 to 20 hrs
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/21154375
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/12444816
https://www.ncbi.nlm.../pubmed/7875114
Anxiolytic, Sleepiness begins to subside after 1st week and no withdrawal.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.../pubmed/9809861
https://www.ncbi.nlm.../pubmed/2430410
Do not take with cimetidine as it increases hydroxyzine levels in the blood.
https://www.ncbi.nlm...les/PMC1512309/
Effective, sleepiness slowly decreases.


Experimental Antihistamines
Zolantidine is an H(2)R antagonist. It is an experimental benzthiazole derivative.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.../pubmed/8721252

R-alpha-methylhistamine is an H(3)R antagonist which lowers BP and pulse. This is one of only two H(3)R agonists to show anxiolytic effects.
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/19357839
(10 to 30 mg/Kg) (High dose)
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/10102775
(10-20 mg/Kg is ineffective on anxiety).
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/24920886

Immepip is a H(3&4)R antagonist which produces no significant sleepiness.
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/19357839
(10 mg/Kg)

Other Anxiolytic Drugs
Buspirone (Buspar) is a seratonin 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist and a dopamine antagonist at the D2 receptor,  D3 receptor and  D4 receptors. It functions as a weak anti-anxiety medication similar to diazepam in strength (a weak benzo). No withdrawal or tolerance issues. Dosage should be kept low if taking a ssri and/or snri or St. John's Wort as it may cause seratonin syndrome. DO NOT take with grapefruit or grapefruit juice. May lower blood pressure. Typical dosage is 10 to 20 mg three times per day.
Buspar in conjunction with sesamol exhibited decreased anxiety in test animals. (See sesamol below)
Begins working 3 to 7 days after begin dosing
Peak levels - 1 hrs
Half Life – 2 - 4 hrs
https://www.ncbi.nlm...les/PMC3608295/
With Sesamol
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/22998742
Buspar (15mg) and Melatonin (3 mg) yielded the best anti-depressant effect of any combination concentration tested. (See Melatonin below)
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/25156283
Buspar and melatonin in combination is anxiolytic.

Primary Blood Pressure Medicines
Clonidine (Catapres, Kapvay, Nexiclon, Clophelin) is a classic blood pressure medicine BUT it is very effective on anxiety. It is an alpha adrenergic antagonist which means it stimulates the alpha adrenaline synapses located in the frontal lobes of the brain. When these synapses are stimulated by the clonidine the brain thinks that it is due to adrenaline and it tells the adrenal gland to produce less adrenaline. It is a little slow to kick in, about an hour and a half. It has a 12 hour half life. Most drs prescribe 0.1 mg twice a day. One to be taken about an hour before bedtime and the other in the morning. Because it decreases adrenaline it has a strong calming effect which helps a person get to sleep and stay a sleep. It is not unusual for people to have a little drowsiness from clonidine until they get use to it (1 or 2 weeks). It does NOT work faster sublingual (under the tongue) like benzos. These have no withdrawal but your blood pressure may spike for a couple weeks if you cold turkey. Due to the lowering of blood pressure and sleepiness it is common for the patient to start with ½ tablet at bedtime. Once the patient adjusts to the medicine they begin a ½ tablet in the morning. As sleepiness and blood pressure stabilize they are slowly worked up to the 2 tablets (0.1 mg each) a day. They also make a slow release patch for clonidine which avoids the peaks up and down in blood pressure and sleepiness associated with taking clonidine every 12 hours.
Begins working 60 to 90 minutes
Peak levels – 3 to 5 hrs
Half Life – 12 - 16 hrs
There are too many research articles on clonidine's anxiolytic properties to list here.

Nadolol (Corgard) is a beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agent. Rebound effect is similar to clonidine. Side effects iclude bradycardia (a slow heart rate) may occur (2%). May cause heart failure in individuals with specific heart conditions, not to be taken by pregnant women as it has been shown to be a fetal toxin. Dose 40 mg/day or higher.
Begins working (unknown)
Peak levels – 3 to 4 hrs
Half Life – 20 - 24 hrs
https://www.ncbi.nlm.../pubmed/6148877
https://www.ncbi.nlm...les/PMC2327398/
Rebound symptoms.

Propranolol is a beta adrenergic blocker which crosses the blood brain barrier.. It is dangerous to unborn fetuses and may be present in lactating milk. Significantly lowers blood pressure in therapeutic doses. A commonly used medicine for a number of conditions.
Begins working in 15 to 30 minutes
Peak levels – 1 – 1.5 hrs
Half Life – 8 - 11 hrs
https://www.ncbi.nlm.../pubmed/8679756
https://www.ncbi.nlm...v/pubmed/772831
https://www.ncbi.nlm.../pubmed/3888241
Not effective on stress.
https://www.ncbi.nlm...v/pubmed/787957
Highly effective with 80-320 mg/day.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.../pubmed/3894197
https://www.ncbi.nlm...v/pubmed/973806
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/19246030
And many more.

Atenolol is a beta 1 adrenergic receptor antagonist, also known as a beta blocker. It does not pass through the blood brain barrier which limits its side effects compared to other beta blockers. It has been linked to a higher risk of type 2 diabetes. It may cause drowsiness and lower blood pressure. Typical dosage around 25 mg four times/day. Dosage should be slowly increased.
Begins working in 30 minutes to an hour
Peak levels – 2 – 4 hrs
Half Life – 6 - 8 hrs
https://www.ncbi.nlm.../pubmed/3549876
Effective but blood pressure drops.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.../pubmed/4054193
Side Effects
https://www.ncbi.nlm.../pubmed/1777372
https://www.ncbi.nlm.../pubmed/4047384
Not effective
https://www.ncbi.nlm.../pubmed/2196620
30% found it effective.

Other Natural Anxiolytic Compounds
Sesamol is a natural organic compound which is a component of sesame oil. It is used in the synthesis of Paxil, an ssri. Nothing could be found on its side effects. No dosage recommendations have been found either. Nearly all sesamol is produced in China.
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/23017032
http://www.academia....Sesamol_article
http://link.springer...0213-010-2094-2
Melatonin is a hormone made in the pineal gland of the brain from tryptophan. It may cause sleepiness, raise blood pressure, and make depression worse. Do not take with other drugs which can cause sleepiness. Due to the short half life it would only be good for treating sudden episodes of anxiety.
Half Life only 20 minutes to an hour.
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/24347765
6 mg dose
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/23552356
May be used sublingually (under the tongue) for anxiety. (3 mg dose)
(60 minutes to full effect)
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/23810991
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/19299777
(10 mg dose)
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/19225268
(5mg/day)
Many more research articles available.

Agomelatine (Valdoxan, Melitor, Thymanax) is a melatonergic antidepressant marketed for the treatment of major depressive disorcer and has been reported not to produce discontinuation symdrome or sexual side effects. Agomelatine may also have positive effects on sleep and cognition. It is a melatonin receptor agonist. Not approved for sale in USA but widely used in Europe. Even with the short half life the typical dosage is 1 (25 mg) tablet at bed time.
Peak Plasm levels – 1 to 2 hours.
Half life 2.3 hours
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/24717138
A large number of drug interactions.
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/23532747
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/24569045
25 – 50 mg/day
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/24766542
25 mg worked better than 50 mg
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/23088208
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/16377959
And many more positive research articles available.

5HTP is 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) a chemical that the body makes from tryptophan (an essential amino acid, which you get from food). After tryptophan is converted into 5-HTP, the chemical is then changed into another chemical called serotonin (a neurotransmitter, which relays signals between brain cells). 5-HTP dietary supplements help raise serotonin levels in the brain. Since serotonin helps regulate mood and behavior, 5-HTP may have a positive effect on sleep, mood, anxiety, appetite, and pain sensation. Usuall dosage around 50 mg
5-HTP is not found in the foods we eat, although tryptophan is. Eating foods with tryptophan does not increase 5-HTP levels very much, however. As a supplement, 5-HTP is made from the seeds of an African plant called Griffonia simplicifolia.
Source: http://www.umm.edu/a...m#ixzz2Q0VyOr4w
Side Effects
5-HTP is POSSIBLY SAFE when taking by mouth. However, some people who have taken it have come down with eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS), a serious condition involving extreme muscle tenderness (myalgia) and blood abnormalities (eosinophilia). Some people think EMS might be caused by an accidental ingredient (contaminant) in some 5-HTP products. However, there is not enough scientific evidence to know if EMS is caused by 5-HTP, a contaminant, or some other factor. Until more is known, 5-HTP should be used cautiously. Other potential side effects of 5-HTP include heartburn, stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, drowsiness, sexual problems, and muscle problems. 5-HTP is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth when pregnant or breast-feeding. Avoid using it.

Warnings on its use.
http://www.ncbi.nlm....les/PMC3415362/

Interactions
Medications for depression (Antidepressant drugs) interacts with 5-HTP.
5-HTP increases a brain chemical called serotonin. Some medications for depression also increase serotonin. Taking 5-HTP along with these medications for depression might increase serotonin too much (seratonin syndrome) can cause serious side effects including heart problems, shivering, and anxiety. Do not take 5-HTP if you are taking medications for depression without consulting with your physician.

5-hydroxytryptophan has been used in alternative medicine as an aid to relieve the symptoms of anxiety, depression, fibromyalgia, insomnia, chronic headaches, premenstrual syndrome, binge-eating related to obesity, attention deficit disorder, and chronic headaches. 5-hydroxytryptophan has also been used in treating certain seizures and symptoms of Parkinson's disease.
Source: http://www.drugs.com/

"Don’t use 5-HTP until more is known. 5-HTP might be UNSAFE."
Source: http://www.webmd.com

1. 5-HTP is changed into serotonin
2. Our body uses tryptophan to make 5-HTP
3. Vitamin B6, vitamin C, folic acid and magnesium are necessary for the metabolization of tryptophan. In addition, tyrosine and phenylalanine compete with tryptophan for absorption.
4. Several dietary, lifestyle, and health factors reduce the conversion of tryptophan to serotonin, including cigarette smoking, high sugar intake, alcohol abuse, excessive consumption of protein, hypoglycemia and diabetes.
5. The following foods contain tryptophan: red meat, dairy products, nuts, seeds, legumes, soybeans and soy products, tuna, shellfish, chicken, spinach and turkey.

Moderate effect of 5HTP on anxiety
http://www.ncbi.nlm..../pubmed/3312397

Erratic effects on 5HTP use.
http://www.ncbi.nlm..../pubmed/2139731

Moderate reduction in anxiety.
http://www.ncbi.nlm..../pubmed/3312397

L Tryptophan is an amino acid essential for human life, cannot be synthesized by our body, and therefore must be part of our diet. In addition, tryptophan functions as a biochemical precursor for the following compounds;
Serotonin synthesized via tryptophan "http://en.wikipedia....an_hydroxylase"HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tryptophan_hydroxylase"hydroxylase. Serotonin, in turn, can be converted to melatonin.
Niacin is synthesized from tryptophan.

L-tryptophan is possibly unsafe when taken by mouth. It has been linked to over 1500 reports of eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS) and 37 deaths. EMS is a neurological condition with symptoms that include fatigue; intense muscle pain; nerve pain; skin changes; baldness; rash; and pain and swelling affecting the joints, connective tissue, lungs, heart, and liver. Symptoms tend to improve over time, but some people may still experience symptoms up to 2 years after they develop EMS. Some people report that their symptoms have never gone away completely. Since the FDA has limited the doses available the occurrence of EMS has markedly dropped.

L-tryptophan can cause some side effects such as heartburn, stomach pain, belching and gas, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and loss of appetite. It can also cause headache, lightheadedness, drowsiness, dry mouth, visual blurring, muscle weakness, and sexual problems. This supplement must be taken together with vitamin C and B-complex vitamins to support the transformation of tryptophan into serotonin. Dosages range from 5 to 1000 mg/day.

L tryptophan reacts with most antidepressants (seratonin syndrome), MAOIs, benzos and sedatives. There is an extensive number of drug interactions. Please research before use.

http://www.ncbi.nlm....les/PMC3195213/
http://www.ncbi.nlm....les/PMC2908021/

L-theanine is an amino acid precursor to glutamate and glutamine. It can cross the blood brain barrier. It is only produced by plants and fungi and a component in some teas. It inhibits glutamine transporters and glutamate transporters, and thus blocks the reuptake of glutamine and glutamate. Theanine increases serotonin, dopamine, GABA, and glycine levels in various areas of the brain. Caution – Most plants that contain L-theanine also contain caffeine and it can be a significant contaminant in L-theanine supplements.

https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/21208586
Effective, 400 mg/day
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/15378679
Not effective on anxiety, 200 mg/day
https://www.ncbi.nlm...les/PMC4137547/
Used to treat PTSD. It was successful in treating 8 gene problems associated with PSTD in the hippocampus and amygdala.

Omega 3 is a polyunsaturated fatty acid. Humans have a limited ability to synthesize omega-3 fatty acid. The ability to make the longer-chain omega-3 fatty acids may also be impaired in aging. The most widely available dietary source of EPA and DHA (types of omega-3) is cold water oily fish, such as salmon, herring, mackerel, anchovies, and sardines. Oils from these fish have a profile of around seven times as much omega-3 as omega-6. Other oily fish, such as tuna, also contain Omega-3 in somewhat lesser amounts. Consumers of oily fish should be aware of the potential presence of heavy metals and fat-soluble pollutants like PCBs and dioxins, which are known to accumulate up the food chain.

https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/25732379
Not effective. 2800 mg/day
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/24191918
Successful against anxiety.
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/21784145
Effective, 2,500 mg/day.
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/21666750
Effective

Note – There are numerous studies that show people with normal levels of Omega 3 are less effected by stress and exhibit less anxiety.

GABA (γ-Aminobutyric acid) is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the human central HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia....nervous_system"HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_nervous_system"nervous system. GABA supplements do not pass through the blood brain barrier. Certain pro-drugs of GABA (ex. picamilon) have been developed to permeate the blood brain barrier, then separate into GABA and the carrier molecule once inside the brain. This allows for a direct increase of GABA levels throughout all areas of the brain, in a manner following the distribution pattern of the pro-drug prior to metabolism. GABA has been observed to inhibit the anabolic path of serotonin into N-Acetylserotonin and melatonin. GABA can be taken sublingually. Picamilon combines niacin and GABA and crosses the blood–brain barrier as a prodrug that later hydrolyzes into GABA and niacin. There is no research showing any anxiety benefit to oral GABA supplements. Typical dose is 500 to 750mg/day. There is no research on the side effects of GABA.

Picamilon is a dietary supplement formed by combining niacin with GABA. Picamilon is able to cross the blood brain barrier and then hydrolyze into niacin and GABA within the brain. In Russia, the country of origin, it is not approved for anxiety treatment. There are no research articles on its effect on anxiety or its side effects.

Inositol is a carbohydrate. It can cause nausea, tiredness, headache, and dizziness. Normal dosing is 12 to 18gr/day.

https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/24424706
No effect
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/11386498
Just as effective as Prosac and with few side effects. (18gr/day)
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/11281942
Effective
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/10847563
Moderately anxiolytic orally.

Glutamine is an essential amino acid. It is involved in protein synthesis and producing and consuming organs. It can cross the blood brain barrier. Glutamate is easily formed by hydrolysis of glutamine. Glutamate has been strongly linked to anxiety. Glutamate is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter. It is also a precursor of GABA, the strongest neural blocking agent. This makes the using of chemicals to treat glutamate anxiety difficult as the conversion of glutamine/glutamate/GABA can shift back and forth. Glutamate cannot easily pass through the blood brain barrier.

Glycine is the smallest amino acid. In one study, the half-life was between 0.5 and 4.0 hours. It functions as an inhibitory neurotransmitter. May cause nausea, vomiting, stomach upset, and especially drowsiness. Based on limited research.

http://www.ncbi.nlm..../pubmed/7609926
http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/19046587
Effective but tastes bad, 60 g/day
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/17715569
Causes anxiety.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.../pubmed/7609926
Causes anxiety.

Taurine is a major constituent of bile and can be found in the large HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia....arge_intestine"HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Large_intestine" HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Large_intestine"intestine, and accounts for up to 0.1% of total human body weight. Taurine has many fundamental biological roles, such as conjugation of bile acids, antioxidation, osmoregulation, membrane stabilization, and modulation of calcium HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcium_signaling" HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcium_signaling" HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcium_signaling"signaling. It is essential for cardiovascular function, and development and function of skeletal muscle, the retina, and the central nervous system. A common ingredient in energy drinks. It crosses the blood brain barrier and is a neural inhibitor. According to animal studies, taurine produces an anxiolytic effect and may act as an antianxiety agent in the central nervous system by activating the glycine receptor. In high doses may elevate blood pressure and pulse. A dosage of around 200 mg is used.

http://www.sciencedi...091305706000311
http://www.karger.co...Abstract/107687
http://www.sciencedi...024320504004394
Moderate and inconsistant anxiolytic agent.
http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/17207866
Only a high dose had any effects.

L-lysine  is an essential amino acid for humans. RDA is 12 mg/kg of body weight. L-Lysine plays a major role in calcium absorption; building muscle protein; recovering from surgery or sports injuries; and the body's production of hormones, enzymes, and antibodies. Lysine has a anxiolytic action through its effects on serotonin receptors in the intestinal tract, and is also hypothesized to reduce anxiety through serotonin regulation in the amygdala. Choose an l-lysine supplement that contains zinc, vitamin C and bioflavonoids. These micronutrients have a synergistic effect with l-lysine and can help absorption and bioavailability. Avoid arginine. Drs recommend a supplement of 500 to 1000 mg/day so not to build up an amino acid imbalance. Do not take with L-Arginine. They are competitive with each other for many different protein synthesis.

http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/17510493
Effective at 2.64g/day with L-arginine
http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/14676321
Effective
http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/12722988
Effective with L-arginine
http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/14609314
Effective with L-arginine
http://www.ncbi.nlm....cles/PMC307574/
Effective and a seratonin receptor antagonist.

L-arginine is an amino acid which is synthesized by the human body. Important in healing and the formation of proteins.

There is no research to show L-arginine as anxiolytic without the presence of l-lysine.

Minerals

Magnesium is a mineral that is used in muscle contractions including the heart, stomach and voluntary muscles. During periods of stress individuals excrete more Mg (magnesium) and Ca (calcium) than normal which facilitates anxiety formation. (See first two references below) This is why a great many doctors prescribe Mg (usually 100 mg/3xDay) for anxiety, heartpounding, cardiac arrythmias, restless leg syndrome and muscle pain associated with anxiety.
http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/16955721
http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/11235829
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/24948052
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/18825946
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/15159129
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/21835188
https://www.ncbi.nlm...les/PMC3198864/
Low Mg contributes to the development of anxiety and decrease in function of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis which controls reactions to stress and regulates many body processes, including digestion, the immune system, mood and emotions, sexuality, and energy storage and expenditure.
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/10907676

Calcium is a mineral that is used in muscle contractions including the heart, stomach and voluntary muscles. During periods of stress individuals excrete more magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) than normal which facilitates anxiety formation. It is also essential for bone health. As dosage increases in a calcium supplement the absorption decreases so any effort to treat anxiety would probably involve a low dose. None of this research recommended a dosage for humans. This characteristic may be why many researchers are looking at calcium channel blockers to treat anxiety as they slow the loss of calcium. Remember that the recommended allowances from the FDA runs from 1,000 to 2000 mg/day depending on age and gender. Note; This recommendation includes the amount received from your diet as well. That must be considered. Do not exceed 2,500 mg/day due to possible constipation and other effects.
http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/16955721
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/10907676
https://www.ncbi.nlm...les/PMC2991703/
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/24948052
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/23754591

Calcium Channel is an area in the membrane around cells that opens and shuts to control calcium movements. A Calcium Channel Blocker is a drug used to block these channels and limit calcium loss/gain. Too much channel blocker may cause a slow heartrate, low blood pressure and even cause the heart to stop completely. Other symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, sleepiness, and shortness of breath. Symptoms usually occur in the first six hours but with some forms of the medication they may not start until 24 hours.
http://www.ncbi.nlm..../pubmed/8986318
Moderate success with verapamil, diltiazem, and nimodipine and unsuccessful with nifedipine.
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/10983469
Not successful with verapamil, nifedipine, cinnarizine and fendilin with only limited success with diltiazem.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.../pubmed/7787686
Limited success with verapamil and nifedipine and no success with cinnarizine, fendiline, and diltiazem.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.../pubmed/9483399
No success with Verapamil, nifedipine, cinnarizine, and fendilin.

Zinc - In the brain, zinc is stored in specific synaptic vesicles by glutamatergic neurons and can "modulate brain excitability". It plays a key role in synaptic plasticity and so in learning. However, it has been called "the brain's dark horse" because it also can be a neurotoxin, suggesting a steady zinc concentration plays a critical role in normal functioning of the brain and central nervous system. The FDA recommends 8 to 11mg/day. Remember this includes zinc from the foods you ingest. That must be considered.
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/23754591
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/10907676
https://www.ncbi.nlm...les/PMC3738454/
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/24948052
http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/20689416

Lithium is a metal that when ingested will decrease the amount of noradrenaline (stimulating neurotransmitter) produced by the body and increase the amount of seratonin (a relaxing neurotransmitter). Not to be taken with antidepressants. Check drug interactions closely. Lithium is completely flushed out of the body in 24 hours. It can negatively affect your thinking process.
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/24948052
http://www.ncbi.nlm..../pubmed/3085912
600 mg of lithium carbonate a day for panic attacks.

Iron forms complexes with oxygen in hemoglobin and myoglobin; these two compounds are common oxygen transport proteins in humans. Iron is also the metal at the active site of many important enzymes dealing with cellular respiration and oxidation and reduction. HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia...._and_reduction"HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxidation_and_reduction"CAUTION HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxidation_and_reduction" – Do not take iron supplements without a doctors supervision. Excessive iron can cause damage to DNA, proteins, lipids, and other cellular components and damages cells in the heart, liver and gastrointestinal tract, which can cause significant adverse effects, including coma, metabolic acidosis, shock, liver failure, coagulopathy, adult respiratory distress syndrome, long-term organ damage, and even death. Substantial damage can occur without any detectable symptoms. A doctor will routinely take your blood iron levels and also transferrin and ferritin which transport and store iron. These values will help him determine if and how much of an iron supplement is needed.
http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/23603926
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/24948052
http://www.ncbi.nlm....les/PMC2783024/
Iron absorption decreases during periods of stress.
http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/23754591

Chromium picolinate , like many chromium compounds, have been liked to toxicity, cancer and liver disease. Dosages of 200 to 1000 mcg are recommended. Caution should be exercised when taking any form of chromium. Side effects can include skin irritation, headaches, dizziness, nausea, mood changes and impaired thinking, judgment, and coordination. High doses have been linked to more serious side effects including blood disorders, liver or kidney damage, and other problems.
http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/17868206
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/25037773
Chromium picolinate significantly increased 5-HT concentration in the discrete regions of brain (cortex and cerebellum).
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/24948052

Anxiety and Depression Genes

There is a growing number of psychiatric facilities who do genetic screening for these genes. In most cases it is not cut and dry what medicines should be used for which gene.

https://www.psycholo...re-we-there-yet
http://anxietypanich...egory/genetics/
http://www.ncbi.nlm....les/PMC3285424/
Genetic testing in psychiatry.

http://www.webmd.com...ponse-to-stress
Summarizes research on depression genes.

http://www.psycholog...-disorder-fkbp5
Anxiety Gene

http://www.ncbi.nlm....les/PMC3181835/
Research on anxiety genes.

http://www.livestron...ession-anxiety/
Genes as a factor for anxiety & depression.

http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/23627963
Emotional Gene study on 4 year old children.

http://www.ncbi.nlm....les/PMC3181683/
Good Summary (anxiety)

http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/15260939
Summary (anxiety)

http://www.ncbi.nlm....les/PMC3655048/
Summary (anxiety)

http://www.ncbi.nlm....cles/PMC400687/
Depression Genetics

http://nih.gov/resea...2depression.htm
Depression genetic 'switch'

Vitamins

Caution -Vitamin Toxicity. More than 60,000 instances of vitamin toxicity are reported annually to US poison control centers.

USP – A sign of synthesized vitamins. Most vitamins can be purchased as natural food vitamins.

Vitamins should always be consumed with at least a small amount of foods which contain the same vitamin. This way any natural covitamins, enzymes or proteins needed to process the vitamin will be available.

A (β-carotene) is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds, that includes retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and several provitamin A carotenoids, among which beta-carotene is the most important. Vitamin A has multiple functions: it is important for growth and development, for the maintenance of the immune system and good vision. Vitamin A is needed by the retina of the eye in the form of retinal. Vitamin A also functions as retinoic acid which is an important hormone-like growth factor for epithelial and other cells. Recommended Daily Allowance is from 600 to 900 micrograms/day (Maximum is 1700 to 3000 micrograms/day). Vitamin A toxicity is very serious and as it is fat soluble it may be stored in the human body. The number of toxicity effects is too long to list here. Consult with physician before taking Vitamin A supplements. Anxiety is a side effect of Vitamin A deficiency and as such Vitamin A will bring the anxiety under control but it is recommended that this be done by dietary changes rather than by supplements due to the risk of toxicity. Vitamin A allergy is rare.

https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/21521362
Not anxiolytic.
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/24777547
RA not anxiolytic.
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/17727954
Causes anxiety

B complex is a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism. Though these vitamins share similar names, research shows that they are chemically distinct vitamins that often coexist in the same foods. In general, supplements containing all eight are referred to as a vitamin B complex. General side effects, (usually transient) may include restlessness, nausea and insomnia. Vitamin B allergies are rare and are usually associated with Vitamin B 3, 6 and 12. Some allergic reactions can be severe. See individual B vitamin. The raw form of B vitamins are difficult to absorb. The methylated or phosphated forms (sometimes refered to as coenzyme form)is more readily absorbed. Since the B vitamins are so essential in our handling of stress many psychiatrists begin new patients off with a vitamin B blood assessment. There is little evidence that B viamins are effective against anxiety but only helps protect against the effect of further stress.

http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/23738221
Used Max Stress B, effective, 30 days to start
Caution – Max Stress B contains many more active ingredients than just B Vitamins.
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/21905094
B complex not effective

B1 (thiamine) is the most active form is thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), a coenzyme in the breakdown of sugars and amino acids. Synthetically thiamin is usually marketed as thiamin hydrochloride or thiamin mononitrate and is a made from Grewe diamine (a coal tar derivative) processed with ammonia and other chemicals.Vitamin B1 toxicity is very rare but high doses can lower other vitamins.

Thiamine is used in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA). Humans must obtain it from their diet. Thiamine deficiency has a potentially fatal outcome if it remains untreated. The RDA is set at about 1.0 mg. There are no reports available of adverse effects from consumption of excess thiamine by ingestion of food and supplements.

No research found to indicate Thiamine is anxiolytic.

B2 (riboflavin) has reactions including activation of other vitamins. There is no evidence for riboflavin toxicity produced by excessive intakes, as its low solubility keeps it from being absorbed in dangerous amounts within the digestive tract. Allergic reactions are rare.

No research found to indicate riboflavin is anxiolytic.

B3 (niacin) is changed to NAD and NADP which are used in important in catabolism of fat, carbohydrate, protein, and alcohol, as well as cell signaling and DNA repair, and NADP mostly in anabolism reactions such as fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis. Niacin is involved in both DNA repair and the production of steroid hormones in the adrenal gland. Due to high energy use in the brain it is the most susceptible organ for niacin deficiency. RDA is 14 to 16 mg/day. Intake should not exceed 35 mg/day. Extended release tablets increase the risk of liver toxicity. The FDA does not recommend the taking of niacin supplements. Niacinamide does not seem to cause gastrointestinal upset or hepatotoxicity that the synthetic time-released niacin can cause.

It comes in 3 forms (nicotinic acid, niacinamide and nicotinamide).

No research found to indicate niacin is anxiolytic.

B5 (pantothenic acid) is a water soluble vitamin that is essential to synthesize and metabolize proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. The RDA is 5mg/day. There is no upper limit for consumption. Extremely high doses have been found to produce panic attacks. Synthetic pantothenic acid is processed with formaldehyde. It exists in 2 other forms; pantotheno and calcium pantothenate.

No research found to indicate pantothenic acid is anxiolytic.

B6 (pyridoxine) is involved in many aspects of macronutrient metabolism, neurotransmitter synthesis, histamine synthesis, hemoglobin synthesis and function, and gene expression. It is a factor in the biosynthesis of five important neurotransmitters: serotonin, dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The RDA is 1 – 3 mg/day. Doses of pyridoxine in excess of the RDA over long periods of time result in painful and ultimately irreversible neurological problems. There are 7 forms; Pyridoxine (most common), Pyridoxine 5'-phosphate, Pyridoxal, Pyridoxa 5 HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia....oxal_phosphate"HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyridoxal_phosphate"' HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyridoxal_phosphate" HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyridoxal_phosphate"-phosphate(PLP), the metabolically active form (sold as 'P-5-P' vitamin supplement) Pyridoxamine (PM), Pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP) and 4-Pyridoxic acid (PA).
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/10746516
50 mg B6 with Mg
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/15554143
Magne-B6 (a magnesium lactate/pyridoxine combination), effective. 14 days to start.

B7 (Biotin) no reported side effects or toxicity.

No research found to indicate biotin is anxiolytic.

B9 (Folic acid, folate) is essential for numerous bodily functions. Humans cannot synthesize folic acid, therefore, folic acid has to be supplied through the diet to meet their daily requirements. Folic acid is not found naturally but folate is. Some recent research has indicated that synthetic folic acid may interfer with the body’s ability to process folate. The human body needs folate to synthesize DNA, repair DNA, and methylate DNA as well as to act as a cofactor in certain biological reactions. It is especially important in aiding rapid cell division and growth, such as in infancy and pregnancy. Children and adults both require folate to produce healthy red blood cells and prevent anemia. Low risk of toxicity. RDA is 400micrograms/day and not to exceed 1000.

http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/22528830

B12 (methylcobalamin) (do not use cyanocobalamin, contains cyanide molecule.) oral use may lead to several allergic reactions such as hives; difficult breathing; swelling of the face, lips, tongue, or throat. Less-serious side effects may include headache, nausea, stomach upset, diarrhea, joint pain, itching, or rash. C HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rash"HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rash"yanocobalamin is synthetically manufactured but the body can convert it to all forms of vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 is essential to growth, cell reproduction, hematopoiesis, and nucleoprotein and myelin synthesis.

http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/12796225
Not anxiolytic.

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid ) is a cofactor in at least eight enzyme reactions, including several collagen synthesis reactions that, when dysfunctional, cause the most severe symptoms of scurvy. In animals, these reactions are especially important in wound-healing and in preventing bleeding from capillaries. Vitamin C may also act as an antioxidant against oxidative stress. The functions of Vitamin C include the synthesis of collagen, carnitine, and neurotransmitters (norepinephrine from dopamine); the synthesis and catabolism of tyrosine; and the metabolism of microsome. RDA is 75 to 90 mg/day with no more than 2000 mg/day maximum. The signs and symptoms of overdose is nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, flushing of the face, headache, fatigue and disturbed sleep. Vitamin C's anxiolytic properties is believed to primarily be from its ability to repair oxidative effects from stress. Must be l-Ascorbic Acid only. Many vitamin C supplements contain D-Ascorbic Acid which cannot be absorbed. Synthetic Vitamin C has been shown to be absorbed the same and as effective as natural vitamin C. Get GMO free Vitamin C with bioflavonoids. The higher the dose of Vitamin C the smaller the % absorbed. To be the most efficient use time release vitamin C.

http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/24511708
Effective at 1000 mg/day
http://www.ncbi.nlm....les/PMC2885294/
Effective
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/24979594
Effective
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/21036190
Effective and lowers cortisol levels.
https://www.ncbi.nlm...les/PMC2649700/
Ascorbate is proposed as a neuromodulator of glutamatergic, dopaminergic, cholinergic and GABAergic transmission and related behaviors.
https://www.ncbi.nlm...les/PMC3964749/
A paper explaining the relationship between oxidative stress and anxiety.

Vitamin D - Cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol

No Research shows Vitamin D, in any form, anxiolytic.

Vitamin E refers to a group of compounds that include both tocopherols and tocotrienols HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia....ki/Tocotrienol"HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tocotrienol". Regular consumption of more than 1,000 mg (1,500 IU) of tocopherols per day may be expected to cause hypervitaminosis E with an associated risk of vitamin K deficiency and consequently of bleeding problems. Vitamin E has many biological functions, the antioxidant function being the most important and best known. Other functions include enzymatic activities, gene expression, and neurological function(s). RDA is 15 mg/day.

http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/24511708
Not effective
https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/21036190
Effective

Resources
Major sources of information includes NCBI, webmd, emedicine and drugs.com.


#3 silverseed72

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Posted 17 October 2016 - 05:38 PM

Is there a summary? lol


#4 fishinghat

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Posted 17 October 2016 - 06:32 PM

You know what they say...Be careful what you ask for, you might get it.  lol


#5 silverseed72

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Posted 26 October 2016 - 04:22 PM

Ok, so I went to my psychiatrist today and told her the situation. She prescribed me she was putting me on Sertraline 25 mg (Zoloft). Any thoughts?


#6 gail

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    5 months on cymbalta, scary side effects, to get help and to return the favor if I can.

Posted 26 October 2016 - 04:39 PM

Hello Silverseed,

First thought here, Zoloft is a great med with less side effects, if some.

Do try this one without any second thoughts. You have been through a lot, I remember.

I was on it and when I reached 125 mg, diarrhea started and switched to Prozac. Which is not much compared to the state of mind we can be in! You know what I mean?

You will be just fine, my gut talking here!

#7 fishinghat

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Posted 26 October 2016 - 05:07 PM

Zoloft is usually a good fit but 25 mg is a very low dose. Remember, it has its own withdrawal too, just not as nasty as Cymbalta.


#8 silverseed72

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Posted 26 October 2016 - 08:40 PM

I just want to make sure it doesn't screw with my liver functions.


#9 fishinghat

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Posted 27 October 2016 - 08:21 AM

Like all ssri and snri it can be linked to liver function problems but unlikely at that dose and Zoloft has a lower risk factor for liver issues.


#10 silverseed72

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Posted 08 November 2016 - 08:27 PM

Is this a side effect of Zoloft?

 

I didn't eat Sunday, Monday I ate a can of chicken noodle soup just to get something in my system. Today I had a few chips just to get something in my system.


#11 fishinghat

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Posted 09 November 2016 - 09:28 AM

The data says that Zoloft can cause many digestive issues. The issues usually develop after a change in dose and resolve 7 to 10 days later. If the effects continue it may be necessary to change ssri.


#12 silverseed72

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Posted 11 November 2016 - 06:57 AM

I was afraid to take it the past 2 days, but I think I will take it back up today. I may have had a stomach bug.

 

On a different note, I have woke up with the worst depression for 3 days in a row. I mean "scared to death/leads to panic depression" but when I finally get up and start moving around it gets a little better. I normally get up at around 6:45 to get ready for work. This has woke me up at 5:30 each morning, however, on another note I have been going to bed at 8:00 on the nights before.





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