J Environ Sci (China). 2019 Aug;82:113-123. doi: 10.1016/j.jes.2019.02.025. Epub 2019 Mar 7.
Degradation of duloxetine: Identification of transformation products by UHPLC-ESI(+)-HRMS/MS, in silico toxicity and wastewater analysis.
Duloxetine, an antidepressant drug, has been detected in surface water and wastewater effluents.
Duloxetine was determined to have eleven degradation products.
The ecotoxicity and mutagenicity of the degradation products were predicted based on several in silico models and it was found that a few of these products presented more ecotoxicity than Duloxetine itself and six degradation products showed positive mutagenicity.
Note - Mutagenicity - Creates changes in genetic material.
Wastewater treatment process not only did not remove Duloxetine, but also formed degradation products in the effluent.
Forensic Sci Int. 2019 Jun;299:154-160. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2019.04.001. Epub 2019 Apr 8.
Development and validation of a method for analysing of duloxetine, venlafaxine and amitriptyline in human bone.
Drugs were detected in bone in all blood positive results, the approximate concentrations being 36.4 ng/mg for amitriptyline, 19.3-3 ng/mg for duloxetine and 4.6-2 ng/mg for venlafaxine.
Biol Pharm Bull. 2018;41(11):1727-1731. doi: 10.1248/bpb.b18-00392.
Effects of Magnesium Oxide on the Serum Duloxetine Concentration and Antidepressant-Like Effects of Duloxetine in Rats.
These results suggest that duloxetine and magnesium oxide directly interact and that such interactions affect the absorption and antidepressant-like effects of duloxetine.