Information on SAM-e, L-tryptophan and 5htp.
Metabolic limitations - All of these items mentioned above are 'natural' in our diets and/or body. However, each has to have certain enzymes, vitamins (such as B6, B12, Vit C, etc.), minerals or other components to be processed into dopamine, serotonin, adrenaline or other neurotransmitters. They may also have items which compete with them in the body such as tyrosine or phenylalanine. The reactions may or may not produce more or less of a neurotransmitter but will that even get to the brain? Many of these products just don't cross the blood brain barrier (a membrane around the brain) so even though they are produced they do no good for mood. Some require special enzymes, insulin, certain proteins, etc to cross the barrier and all these items have their own requirements and limitations. This becomes clearly evident in looking at all the individual comments on these supplements. The effects are all over the place. Each persons body is different and has its own nutritional shortages or overages and therefore it may be impossible to tell in advance what reaction may occur to one of these supplements.
An amino acid. Tyrosine is a hydrophilic amino acid and is significantly less soluble in water than its precursor, phenylalinine.
L-phenylalinine is converted by the body to L-tyrosine which is changed to L-DOPA then to dopamine followed by norepiniphrine and finally epinephrine (adrenaline).
Tyrosine is a precursor to neurotransmitters and increases plasma neurotransmitter levels (particularly dopamine and norepinephrine),but has little if any effect on mood in normal subjects. The effect on mood is noted in humans subjected to stressful conditions.
A number of studies have found tyrosine to be useful during conditions of stress, cold, fatigue, prolonged work and sleep deprivation, with reductions in stress hormone levels, reductions in stress-induced weight loss seen in animal trials, and improvements in cognitive and physical performance seen in human trials. Wiki
If you don’t get enough l-tyrosine in your diet, or your body doesn’t properly convert it, you won’t be able to synthesize adequate dopamine. When looking for a supplement, consider n-acetyl-l-tyrosine. This is a highly absorbable form of l-tyrosine that readily enters the brain. L-tyrosine and phenylalanine compete with tryptophan for absorption. Tryptophan is converted to serotonin by the body so if too much L-tyrisine is present n the blood stream then serotonin levels may decrease. One of the functions of Vitamin C include the synthesis norepinephrine from dopamine and the synthesis and catabolism (breakdown) of tyrosine. So vitamin C may increase tyrosine or decrease tyrosine in the body depending on conditions. Webmd.com
Note - So excess L-tryptophan or L-tyrosone is converted to extra serotonin and adrenaline respectively. The mayo Clinic does an amino acid analysis before putting people on amino acids for psych issues.
Phosphorylated Serine - An amino acid not to be confused with Phosphatidylserine although similar in structure and action and is mostly used to improve clotting and cognition. Taking it with Cymbalta reduces the essential amino acid serine in the body and should be avoided. NCBIhttps://www.drugs.co...949-2273,2568-0
Applies to: tryptophan, Cymbalta (duloxetine)
Using tryptophan together with DULoxetine is generally not recommended. Combining these medications can increase the risk of a rare but serious condition called the serotonin syndrome, which may include symptoms such as confusion, hallucination, seizure, extreme changes in blood pressure, increased heart rate, fever, excessive sweating, shivering or shaking, blurred vision, muscle spasm or stiffness, tremor, incoordination, stomach cramp, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Severe cases may result in coma and even death. You should contact your doctor immediately if you experience these symptoms while taking the medications. It is important to tell your doctor about all other medications you use, including vitamins and herbs. Do not stop using any medications without first talking to your doctor.
SAMe - S-Adenosyl methionine is a common substrate involved in methylmethyl group transfers, transsulfuration, and aminopropylation. Although these reactions occur throughout the body, most SAM-e is produced and consumed in the liver. More than 40 methyl transfers from SAM-e are known, to various substrates such as nucleic acids, proteins, lipids etc. The half-life is about 100 minutes. Wiki
Safety and side effects
Side effects from SAMe are rare and, if they occur, usually mild.
SAMe can cause:
⦁ Upset stomach
⦁ Mild insomnia
⦁ Diarrhea Mayo
Possible interactions include:
⦁ Antidepressants and other drugs and supplements that increase levels of serotonin. Don't take SAMe with antidepressants. The combination could cause effects similar to a condition caused by high levels of the chemical serotonin to accumulate in your body (serotonin syndrome).
⦁ Antipsychotics. Be cautious when taking these drugs with SAMe. The combination could increase the risk of serotonin syndrome.
⦁ Amphetamines. Be cautious when taking these drugs with SAMe. The combination could increase the risk of serotonin syndrome.
⦁ Dextromethorphan. Taking SAMe with this cough suppressant could increase the risk of serotonin syndrome.
⦁ Narcotics. Taking SAMe with meperidine (Demerol) or tramadol (Ultam, ConZip) could increase the risk of serotonin syndrome.
⦁ St. John's wort. Be cautious when taking this supplement with SAMe. The combination could cause serotonin syndrome.