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Treatment For Chronic Depression


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#1 fishinghat

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Posted 08 June 2020 - 03:32 PM

A must read for those suffering from chronic depression.

https://www.medicaln...articles/324362

This article is in reference to the following research.

https://www.nature.c...1564-018-0337-x


#2 invalidusername

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Posted 18 June 2020 - 06:47 AM

Can't believe I missed this... but we for sure knew this was on the cards as a culprit. After reading the article, the question still remains, what can be done to rectify. All very well that these two specific strains of bacteria are missing in a notable amount of people with depression. 

 

Good find though and sincerely hope that more can be expected following confident results.

 

Noticed the pdf was locked down to academic users, so have accessed and emailed to you Hat for your own resources.


#3 fishinghat

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Posted 18 June 2020 - 07:47 AM

There will be more info forthcoming on this. Still working on it.


#4 invalidusername

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Posted 18 June 2020 - 09:05 AM

Similar study showing transplant of specific bacteria leads to depressive symptoms in otherwise healthy subjects;

 

https://www.scienced...90506163642.htm

 

Hat - look at table 1 shown in this paper - indexes all of the papers written to date regarding the gut-brain axis and depression

 

https://www.ncbi.nlm...les/PMC7276434/

 

"microbiota-based interventions could play a major role in modulating the gut-brain axis and, thereby, in preventing mood disorders"

 

https://pubmed.ncbi....h.gov/28512033/


#5 fishinghat

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Posted 18 June 2020 - 01:36 PM

Interesting reading but too much of this research (but not all) and other articles emphasize that the wrong bacteria can and is related to depression. I am more interested in what bacteria relate to improvements in depression. The last article did address this to some extent.


#6 invalidusername

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Posted 18 June 2020 - 05:22 PM

Yes, the former has been known for some time, but the latter has been in the background courtesy of the lack of research into the pro/prebiotic market. Why it has taken so long knowing that production begins in the gut - albeit not crossing the BBB, but clearly has a significant role to play given the above.


#7 fishinghat

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Posted 12 July 2020 - 04:36 PM

Sorry about these posts being scrampled. I editted them 3 times and each time I reposted they scrambled again.


#8 invalidusername

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Posted 12 July 2020 - 06:09 PM

Bacteria important in fighting depression - page 1

The following family/genus/species have been found to be associated with improvements in depression:

Firmicutes
Clostridia
Lachnospiraceae
Coprococcus
Ruminococcaceae

Inhibited by PPIs.

Faecalibacterium
These bacteria produce butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids through the fermentation of dietary fiber.

 

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii
The most important butyrate-producing bacteria in the human colon. An overview at...
 

https://pubmed.ncbi....h.gov/29566907/

Lactobacillaceae

 

Lactobacillus brevis
L.brevis is found in food such as sauerkraut and pickles .Major metabolites of L. brevis include lactic acid and ethanol. L. brevis produces more organic acids, specifically acetic acid and ethanol. This means that this bacterium produces an increased acidic environment and alcohol. Growth conditions all depend on the location of the bacterium within the intestines. It does seem that they are unable to significantly replicate in anaerobic environments.

Lactobacillus helveticus
Lowers cortisol and decreases depression (humans). but also significantly decreased plasma levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline.

 

Lactobacillus helveticus is a lactic-acid producing, rod-shaped bacterium. It is most commonly used in the production of American Swiss cheese and Emmental cheese.

 

Lactobacillus casei
In a double-blind study conducted by Benton et al., 124 healthy volunteers consumed milk enriched with Lactobacillus casei, a Shirota strain, for 20 days. Volunteers were divided into three subgroups depending on the initial mood. Results - evaluated using the POMS (Profile of Mood States) – showed statistically significant improvement in the mood of the group of people who initially assessed their mood as the most lowered.

Akkasheh et al. conducted a study involving 40 patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder. Patients received Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium bifidum probiotics or placebo (double-blind trial) for 8 weeks. The results showed that consumption of probiotic significantly reduced depression scores. The group receiving probiotics obtained improvement in the metabolism of insulin, probiotics also reduced oxidative stress in patients with major depressive disorder.
                            

A commercial beverage containing L. casei strain Shirota has been shown to inhibit the in vivo growth of Helicobacter pylori, but when the same beverage was consumed by humans in a small trial, H. pylori colonization decreased only slightly, and the trend was not statistically significant. Some L. casei strains are considered to be probiotic, and may be effective in alleviation of gastrointestinal pathogenic bacterial diseases.

 

According to WHO, those properties have to be demonstrated on each specific strain - including human clinical studies - to be valid. L. casei has been combined with other probiotic strains of bacteria in randomized trials studying its effects in preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and Clostridium difficile infections (CDI), and patients in the trials who were not given the placebo had significantly lower rates of AAD or CDI (depending on the trial) with no adverse effects reported. Additionally, trials have shown significantly shorter recovery times in children suffering from acute diarrhea (primarily caused by rotavirus) when given different L. casei treatments when compared to placebo. Studies suggest that Lactobacillus is a safe and effective treatment for acute and infectious diarrhea.

Lactobacillus pentosus
In 2012, Shinkai et al. conducted a study involving 300 healthy volunteers at the age of 65 or older. Participants of the study were taking Lactobacillus pentosus or placebo. The study lasted for 20 weeks. The results of the experiment showed a statistically significant improvement in well-being and subjective perception of subjects’ health in the group receiving probiotics compared to the placebo group.


#9 invalidusername

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Posted 12 July 2020 - 06:12 PM

Bifidobacterium longum (aka Bifidobacterium infantis)
Regulates 5htp and helps alleviate depression.
It has been successfully used to treat depression.
Significantly increases BDNF.

Lowers cortisol and decreases depression (humans). but also significantly decreased plasma levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline.

 

Sixty-three healthy elders (≥ 65 years) consumed either placebo or probiotics containing Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium longum (1 × 109 CFU/d) for 12 weeks. Contrary to placebo, probiotics significantly increased serum BDNF level. In conclusion, probiotics promote mental flexibility and alleviate stress in healthy elderly, along with causing changes in gut microbiota.

 

Administration in mice significantly improved the scores in behavioral tests and increased the level of 5-HTP and serotonin (5- HT) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of the brain. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the PFC was also increased, In addition, it alleviated the hyperactivity of the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response and accordingly reversed the peripheral inflammation status. Moreover, the stress-induced structural and functional dysbiosis of the gut microbiome was improved by it, through increased alpha diversity and abundance of butyrate- producing bacteria, in conjunction with inhibition of pathogenic gene expression.

In the study the levels of tryptophan, the precursor of serotonin, and kynurenine acid, a product of metabolic transformation of tryptophan with a neuroprotective effect in mice treated with a probiotic containing Bifidobacterium infantis were assessed in relation to individuals from the control group. In the group of mice receiving the probiotic, higher concentrations of both factors were noted.

Fifty rats were separated into control and other four groups randomly. The four groups underwent the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) intervention with or without prebiotics and probiotics (Bifidobacterium longum, L. rhamnosus) treatment. In conclusion, these findings implied that prebiotics and probiotics have antidepressive effects, and a considerable effect on the regulation of 5-HT metabolism, especially L. rhamnosus.

While B. longum is not significantly present in the adult gastrointestinal tract, it is considered part of the gut microbiota and its production of lactic acid is believed to prevent growth of pathogenic organisms. B. longum is non-pathogenic and is often added to food products. B. longum colonizes the human astrointestinal tract, where it, along with other Bifidobacterium species, represents up to 90% of the bacteria of an infant's gastrointestinal tract. This number gradually drops to 3% in an adult's gastrointestinal tract as other enteric bacteria such as Bacteroides and Eubacterium begin to dominate. The use of B. longum was shown to shorten the duration and minimize the severity of symptoms associated with the common cold with a similar effect to that of neuraminidase inhibitors for influenza

 

Bifidobacterium dentium
Efficient GABA producer

 

B. dentium is a source of anaerobic infections. Scientists have shown that B. dentium can cause tooth decay in humans. Due to its high tolerance of the acidic environments reached by the human mouth (pH 4.5), B. dentium can sustain growth in the oral cavities, cause harm to the teeth, and break down sugars. Taking it in capsule form would minimize oral exposure.

 

B. dentium has been identified by researchers at Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital as producing a neurotransmitter that may play a role in preventing or treating inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease.

 

B. dentium colonizes the intestinal mucus layer, where it has been found to produce acetate.


#10 invalidusername

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Posted 12 July 2020 - 06:14 PM

Bifidobacterium bifidum
Sixty-three healthy elders (≥ 65 years) consumed either placebo or probiotics containing Bifidobacterium bifidum BGN4 and Bifidobacterium longum BORI (1 × 109 CFU/d) for 12 weeks. Contrary to placebo, probiotics significantly increased serum BDNF level. In conclusion, probiotics promote mental flexibility and alleviate stress in healthy elderly, along with causing changes in gut microbiota.

Akkasheh et al. conducted a study involving 40 patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder. Patients received Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium bifidum probiotics or placebo (double-blind trial) for 8 weeks. The results showed that consumption of probiotic significantly reduced depression scores. The group receiving probiotics obtained improvement in the metabolism of insulin, probiotics also reduced oxidative stress in patients with major depressive disorder.

The majority of the population of B. bifidum is found in the colon, lower small intestine, breast milk, and often in the vagina. B. bifidum is an essential bacteria found in the human intestine. When it is low or absent all together in the human intestine, it is an indication of being in an unhealthy state. Intestinal flora can be improved if someone takes oral B. bifidum. Also, oral B. bifidum is used for other things such as therapy for enteric and hepatic disorders, for activating the immune response, and for preventing some cancers. B. bifidum decreases as people age. As B. bifidum decreases, other gut bacteria such as Lactobacilli, Enterococci, Enterobacteria and Clostridia (potentially disease causing) increase. All of these increase an older adults risk for cancer and decrease the ability for their liver to function adequately and efficiently.            

 

Consuming dairy products seem to be the most efficient way to keep a healthy gut flora. However pastuerized milk has much lower bacterial counts that raw milk, especially disease causing bacteria. B. bifidum is an important intestinal microbe. One study shows that because hard cheese has a higher pH, higher fat content and is more solid, it is more effective in carrying probiotics such as B. bifidum to a person through ingestion.

Bifidobacterium adolescentis
We established that the ingestion of the probiotic composition based on the selected strains by BALB/c mice for 2 weeks reduced depressive-like behavior in the forced swimming test; the effect was similar to that of fluoxetine.

Clostridium butyricum
https://pubmed.ncbi....h.gov/30234616/
Clostridium butyricum (60 mg/d) in combination with (existing treatment with)antidepressants (flvoxamine, paroxetine, escitalopram, duroxetine, and sertraline) provided significant improvement in depression. All patients completed the trial, and 70% responded to treatment; the remission rate was 35.0%. No serious adverse events occurred.

Most member of the families below are harmless to humans but there are a few individual species that can cause disease. Little studies have been performed on these groups.

 

Corynebacterium
Psychrobacter
Peptostreptococcaceae incertae sedis
Alcaligenaceae

 

Summary

The probiotics with the best indication that they reduce depression are:

 

Lactobacillus helveticus

Lactobacillus casei
Lactobacillus acidophilus
Bifidobacterium breve
Bifidobacterium longum (aka Bifidobacterium infantis)
Bifidobacterium dentium
Bifidobacterium bifidum
 
======================================================================================================================

#11 invalidusername

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Posted 12 July 2020 - 06:16 PM

Sorry about these posts being scrampled. I editted them 3 times and each time I reposted they scrambled again.

 

IUN to the rescue!!!

 

Re-formatted and re-posted for you :)


#12 fishinghat

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Posted 13 July 2020 - 08:31 AM

Thank You IUN.   &%$(&  Technology.


#13 fishinghat

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Posted 13 July 2020 - 08:35 AM

General Information
page 1
 
Changes in the gut microbiome increase the release of microbial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) which activate a gut inflammatory response. Gut pro-inflammatory cytokines stimulate the afferent vagal nerve which in turn impacts the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis inducing symptoms associated with depression. Recent research suggests that gut inflammation can induce neuroinflammation which, in turn, stimulates microglia activation and the kynurenine pathway and can activate systemic inflammation-inducing depressive symptoms. Promoting a healthy diet and lifestyle changes, limiting exposure to pesticides, limiting medications that affect the microbiome and the use of such things pre/probiotics and other interventions may complement existing efforts to curb the rise in depression. Alternative and complementary therapies may serve as effective treatments in adolescents with depression. 
 
(Full Text)
 
It is estimated that the number of microbial cells in the human body is ten times
higher than that of our own somatic cells – the microbiota consists of about 10^14 cells.
The microbiota is composed of more than a thousand species of bacteria, fungi,
archaea, and viruses. The most numerous type of bacteria are Firmicutes (64%),
Bacteroidetes (23%), Proteobacteria (8%) and Acinetobacter (3%). The composition
of the flora varies depending on the section of the gastrointestinal tract.
Intestinal microbiota performs a variety of functions in the body, i.a., it synthesizes
B and K vitamins, affects the absorption of magnesium, calcium and iron ions,
conversion of fatty acids, stimulates the development of the immune system and
performs protective functions – commensal bacteria compete with pathogenic bacteria for nutrients and receptors on the surface of the intestine. Intestinal bacteria affect the
intestinal epithelial tightness by influencing the gene expression of some structural
proteins in the so-called tight junctions between intestinal epithelial cells.
 
Many of the articles mentioned a lack of short-chain fatty acids in those suffering from depression. This corresponds to the type of bacteria that are in low population in the gut.
 
Bacterial Transplants
 
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Transplant of bacteria from gut of healthy rats to gut of depressed rats alleviated depression.
 
Fecal microbiota transplantation from mice significantly ameliorated the depressive-like behavior induced by chronic unpredictable stress in recipient mice.
 
There are several other papers that show that fecal transplants have a positive impact on depression, anxiety, indlammation and other activities in the human body.
 
Prebiotics
 
Prebiotics, such as galactooligosaccharide (GOS), polydextrose (PDX) and the glycoprotein lactoferrin (LAC), also appear to regulate gut microbiota and improve behavior through the microbiota-gut-brain axis 
Mood was improved by enhancing diet quality. Fructooligosaccharide and galactooligosaccharide improved anxiety and depression in participants consuming ≥ 5 g/day. Additionally, bifidobacteria were enriched in subjects consuming ≥ 5 g/day. Probiotic consumption improved psychological or biological measures of depression, anxiety, or stress in individuals predisposed to a mood disorder. Probiotics suppressed biological markers of stress in healthy individuals in a strain-dependent manner.
 
We tested whether early life supplementation of a blend of two prebiotics, galactooligosaccharide (GOS) and polydextrose (PDX), and the glycoprotein lactoferrin (LAC) would attenuate behavioural and biological responses to stress later in life. Juvenile, male F344 rats were fed diets containing either GOS and PDX alone, LAC alone, or GOS, PDX and LAC. All diets altered gut bacteria, while diets containing GOS and PDX increased Lactobacillus spp. These data suggest early life diets containing prebiotics and/or LAC promote behavioural stress resistance and uniquely modulate gene expression in corresponding circuits. 
 
We investigated the antidepressant-like effect of lactoferrin (Lf) in a repeated forced-swim test (FST) stress mouse model. These results suggest that bLf may improve the depressive-like symptoms induced by repeated FST. 
 
Inulin-type fructo-oligosaccharides (FOSs) purified from Morinda officinalis alleviated depression-like behaviors and repaired intestinal epithelia damages in rats. 
 
Note -  Used as an alternative sweetener. FOS exhibits sweetness levels between 30 and 50 percent of sugar in commercially prepared syrups. All inulin-type prebiotics, including FOS, are generally thought to stimulate the growth of Bifidobacteria species. This effect has not been uniformly found in all studies. These species are responsible mainly for the gas formation (hydrogen and carbon dioxide), which results after ingestion of FOS. Studies have shown that up to 20 grams/day is well tolerated.
 
Over view of Inulin-type fructo-oligosaccharides 
 
Here, we found that oral sesamin administration (50 mg/kg·bodyweight/day) significantly attenuated depressive, aversive, repetitive, and anxiety-like behaviors in a long-term multiple nonsocial stress-treated mice model. Sesamin inhibited stress-induced gut barrier integrity damage, reduced circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels, and suppressed neuroinflammatory responses. Moreover, sesamin treatment also restructured the gut microbiome by enhancing the relative abundances of Bacteroidales and S24-7. The correlation analysis indicated that the microbiota composition changes were strongly correlated with behavioral disorders, serotonin, norepinephrine, and LPS levels. In conclusion, sesamin has preventive effects on stress-induced behavioral and psychological disorders, which might be highly related to the reshaped microbiota composition. This study provides a clue for understanding the systemic mechanism of anti-depression effects of sesamin. 
 
This study is aimed to determine the potential antidepressant effects of (+)-sesamin, a lignan component of sesame, in a mild stress-induced depression mouse model. CD-1 mice were treated with chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) process and orally administrated with sesamin (50 mg/kg/d) for 6 weeks. It was found that sesamin prevented stress-induced decease levels of 5-HT and NE in striatum and serum.  Sesamin treatment also prevented stressed-induced memory impairments and neuronal damages. Consistently, sesamin also enhanced synapse ultrastructure and improved expressions of PSD-95 in stressed mice hippocampus with improving neurotrophic factors expression including BDNF and NT3. Moreover, sesamin treatment significantly prevented CUMS-induced neuroinflammation by inhibiting over-activation of microglia and expressions of inflammatory mediators including iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α and IL-1β in stressed mice hippocampus and cortex. These results illustrated that sesamin markedly improved CUMS-induced depression and memory loss via inhibiting neuroinflammation, which indicate that as food component, sesamin might be also a novel potential therapeutic for depression. 
 
Psilocybin, the principal indole alkaloid of Psilocybe mushrooms, is currently undergoing clinical trials as a medication against treatment-resistant depression and major depressive disorder. 
 
Psilocybin is a serotonin receptor agonist that occurs naturally in some mushroom species. Recent studies have assessed the therapeutic potential of psilocybin for various conditions, including end-of-life anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and smoking and alcohol dependence, with promising preliminary results. Here, we aimed to investigate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of psilocybin in patients with unipolar treatment-resistant depression.  In this open-label feasibility trial, 12 patients (six men, six women) with moderate-to-severe, unipolar, treatment-resistant major depression received two oral doses of psilocybin (10 mg and 25 mg, 7 days apart) in a supportive setting. There was no control group. Psychological support was provided before, during, and after each session. The primary outcome measure for feasibility was patient-reported intensity of psilocybin's effects. Patients were monitored for adverse reactions during the dosing sessions and subsequent clinic and remote follow-up. Psilocybin's acute psychedelic effects typically became detectable 30-60 min after dosing, peaked 2-3 h after dosing, and subsided to negligible levels at least 6 h after dosing. Mean self-rated intensity (on a 0-1 scale) was 0·51 (SD 0·36) for the low-dose session and 0·75  for the high-dose session. Psilocybin was well tolerated by all of the patients, and no serious or unexpected adverse events occurred. The adverse reactions we noted were transient anxiety during drug onset (all patients), transient confusion or thought disorder (nine patients), mild and transient nausea (four patients), and transient headache (four patients). Relative to baseline, depressive symptoms were markedly reduced 1 week and 3 months after high-dose treatment. Marked and sustained improvements in anxiety and anhedonia were also noted. 
 
Over-view of above mentioned Prebiotics.
Galactooligosaccharides are classified as prebiotics, defined as non-digestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host by stimulating the growth and/or activity of beneficial bacteria in the colon. The increased activity of these health-promoting bacteria results in a number of effects, both directly by the bacteria themselves or indirectly by the organic acids they produce via fermentation. Examples of effects are stimulation of immune functions, absorption of essential nutrients, production of the powerful anti-oxidant H2 gas and syntheses of certain vitamins. Galacto-oligosaccharides may improve stool frequency and relieve symptoms related to constipation. GOS in amounts 12 g per day or lower is usually well tolerated. Larger amounts may cause abdominal bloating, excessive gas (flatulence) or other mild gastrointestinal symptoms 
 
Polydextrose is a synthetic polymer of glucose.[1] It is a food ingredient classified as soluble fiber by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as well as Health Canada, as of April 2013. It is frequently used to increase the dietary fiber content of food, to replace sugar, and to reduce calories and fat content. It is a multi-purpose food ingredient synthesized from dextrose (glucose), plus about 10 percent sorbitol and 1 percent citric acid. However, polydextrose is not universally well tolerated. Doses as low as 10 g cause significantly more intestinal gas and flatulence than fermentation resistant psyllium.
 
Lactoferrin -is widely represented in various secretory fluids, such as milk, saliva, tears, and nasal secretions. Lactoferrin is one of the components of the immune system of the body; it has antimicrobial activity (bacteriocide, fungicide) and is part of the innate defense. In particular, lactoferrin provides antibacterial activity to human infants. It is an iron-containing red protein in milk. Apart from its main biological function, namely binding and transport of iron ions, lactoferrin also has antibacterial, antiviral, antiparasitic, catalytic, anti-cancer, and anti-allergic functions and properties.  It has aided in decreasing bone resorption and increasing bone formation.
 
 
Fructooligosaccharide - used as an alternative sweetener. These oligosaccharides can be found in a large number of plants, especially in Jerusalem artichoke, chicory and the blue agave plant as well as  bananas, onions, chicory root, garlic, asparagus, jícama, and leeks. Some grains and cereals, such as wheat and barley, also contain FOS. In the colon they are fermented by anaerobic bacteria. In other words, they have a lower caloric value, while contributing to the dietary fiber fraction of the diet. Fructooligosaccharides are more soluble than inulins and are, therefore, sometimes used as an additive to yogurt and other (dairy) products. FOS serves as a substrate for microflora in the large intestine, increasing the overall gastrointestinal tract health. All inulin-type prebiotics, including FOS, are generally thought to stimulate the growth of Bifidobacteria species. Bifidobacteria are considered beneficial bacteria. These species are responsible mainly for the gas formation (hydrogen and carbon dioxide), which results after ingestion of FOS. Studies have shown that up to 20 grams/day is well tolerated.
 
 
Sesamin - Sesamin is a lignan isolated from the bark of Fagara plants and from sesame oil. It has been used as a dietary fat-reduction supplement, although no controlled studies on this application have been performed. Its major metabolite is enterolactone, which has an elimination half life of less than 6 hours. Sesamin and sesamolin are minor components of sesame oil, on average comprising only 0.14% of the oil by mass. The richest known dietary sources of enterolactone precursors are flaxseed and sesame seed. Since enterolactone is produced by specific species of gut microbiota, the capacity to produce it varies between people. Antibiotic treatments can abolish the capacity to produce enterolactone. It may take up to a year before enterolactone production is restored. There are limited human studies on sesamin, but it appears that oral ingestion of around 100-150mg of sesamin is sufficient to raise bodily sesamin stores to the level where it can preserve Vitamin E in the body; this indirect antioxidative effect may be the most practical reason to supplement sesamin.
 
More details on sesamin at....

#14 fishinghat

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Posted 13 July 2020 - 08:45 AM

Page 2
Stress Relationship
 
Catecholamines (Stress related compounds) can elevate certain bacterial levels 10 000-fold and intensify their infectiousness in 14 hours. These pathogenic species may crowd out beneficial species. In line with an early work linking academic stress with immune dysregulation.  Knowles et al. found that as university students’ stress increased throughout the semester, certain health-promoting bacteria decreased. Even so, people under stress have unpredictable patterns of dysbiosis. Gut bacteria can regulate the immune system, but dysbiosis can increase risk for infection or autoimmune disease.
 
We found that stress led to low bacterial diversity, simpler bacterial network, and increased abundance of pathogens, such as Escherichia/Shigella, and conditional pathogens, such as Enterococcus, Vagococcus, and Aerococcus. However, these changes were attenuated by fluoxetine directly and indirectly. 
 
PPIs
 
For example, proton pump inhibitors (e.g. omeprazole), widely used to treat acid reflux, reduce diversity and affect 20% of species, creating an unhealthy gut microbiota that may predispose to gastrointestinal infection. Indeed, PPIs may negatively impact the gut bacteria population even more so than do antibiotics.
 
Bacterial cultures from the stomach were obtained from 103 patients, and duodenal samples were also cultured from 49 of them, for a total of 53 patients with PPI use and 50 patients without. Positive gastric cultures were found in 42 of 53 patients with PPI use and in 13 of 50 without (P < 0.0001). Duodenal cultures were positive in 20 of 24 with PPI and 8 of 25 without (P < 0.0001). The most commonly identified bacterial species were oral strains of Streptococcus, followed by Neisseria and Haemophilus influenzae. Bacterial growth in the stomach and duodenum is more common in patients with PPI treatment. 
 
Twelve observational study cohorts with 708 PPI users and 11 interventional cohorts with 180 PPI users were included in the review. In most studies, PPI treatment did not affect microbiological richness and diversity, but was associated with distinct taxonomic alterations: In the upper gastrointestinal tract, PPI users showed overgrowth of orally derived bacteria, mostly Streptococcaceae (findings based on six independent cohorts with 126 PPI users). In faecal samples, PPIs increased multiple taxa from the orders Bacillales (eg, Staphylococcaceae), Lactobacillales (eg, Enterococcaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Streptococcaceae) and Actinomycetales (eg, Actinomycetaceae, Micrococcaceae), the families Pasteurellaceae and Enterobacteriaceae and the genus Veillonella. Taxa decreased by PPIs include Bifidobacteriaceae, Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae and Mollicutes (findings in faecal samples based on 19 independent cohorts with 790 PPI users). 
 
Anti-parasitic Drugs
 
At taxa and species level, Moxidectin (anti-parasitic drug) affected a number of bacteria including a 30-fold increase in Bifidobacterium cholerium, a bacterium with a strong ability to degrade carbohydrates that resist digestion in the small intestine. There was a minimum of 2-fold increase in: five probiotic species of Lactobacillus, butyrate-forming Rosburia Facies and Butyrivibro proteovlasticus. In contrast, MOX depleted 11 species, including 2 species of Ruminoccus, which are positively associated with severity of irritable bowel syndrome, and 4 species of Provettela, which are closely associated with depressive-like behavior. 
 
Antidepressants
 
We found that stress led to low bacterial diversity, simpler bacterial network, and increased abundance of pathogens, such as Escherichia/Shigella, and conditional pathogens, such as Enterococcus, Vagococcus, and Aerococcus. However, these changes were attenuated by fluoxetine directly and indirectly. 
 
 Fluoxetine reduces the membership of T. sanguinis in the gut microbiota.
 
Clostridium butyricum (60 mg/d) in combination with (existing treatment with)antidepressants (flvoxamine, paroxetine, escitalopram, duroxetine, and sertraline) provided significant improvement in depression. All patients completed the trial, and 70% responded to treatment; the remission rate was 35.0%. No serious adverse events occurred. 
 
Probiotics
 
In total, 19 double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials with a total of 1901 participants were included in the qualitative synthesis. Participants treated with probiotics showed significantly greater improvement in depressive symptoms than those receiving placebo.
 
5-HT
 
This suggests that alterations in the microbiome during development, but not later in life, could influence 5-HT2C receptor editing patterns. Overall, these results demonstrate that the microbiota affects 5-HT2C receptor editing in the brain and may inform novel therapeutic strategies in conditions in which 5-HT2C receptor editing is altered, such as depression. 

#15 fishinghat

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Posted 13 July 2020 - 08:47 AM

Other articles reviewed for pertinent information.
 
Human
 
 
Kelly J.R. Lost in translation? The potential psychobiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) fails to modulate stress or cognitive performance in healthy male subjects. Brain Behav. Immun. 2017;61:50–59. 
 
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#16 invalidusername

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Posted 13 July 2020 - 05:38 PM

Nice formatting there Hat!!

 

Will make my job easier when it comes to updating the eBook :)

 

Still going over the first part about probiotics - looks like it has been an unexplored territory...


#17 fishinghat

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Posted 13 July 2020 - 05:52 PM

Well I found over 50 articles about which probiotics (bacterial) have been linked to depression. That is more than I expected. 


#18 invalidusername

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Posted 13 July 2020 - 06:31 PM

Great work on your part - just need to put the pieces together and see what can be found to be of benefit.


#19 fishinghat

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Posted 14 July 2020 - 08:34 AM

Good luck with that.  lol





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